Stock Market Basics: Trading For Beginners – Newsweek Vault (2024)

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Chances are, you’ve heard that investing your money is one of the best ways to grow your wealth. You likely also know that investing comes with risk—which is why it can be intimidating to start investing for the first time.

Learning the stock market and how it works can help make investing less daunting. We take a look at what you need to know to better understand trading for beginners. That way, you can dip your toes into investing in the stock market confidently.

Vault’s Viewpoint

  • Before you begin to invest, you need to understand the risk you are taking on.
  • Setting a budget of money you can afford to lose if your investments don’t perform is key.
  • Diversifying your assets across different companies and industries can help you balance your risk.

What Is the Stock Market?

First things first: Before you can invest in the stock market, you need to understand what it is. The stock market is a marketplace that makes it possible for individuals or larger entities like businesses to buy and sell shares of publicly traded companies. This process helps companies raise capital by selling their shares and, in exchange, the investors own a small fraction of the company. The two most popular stock exchanges are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and Nasdaq.

Stock prices fluctuate regularly due to many different factors. How a company is performing, economic trends, current events and market conditions can all impact how a stock performs on a daily basis. The goal when investing in the stock market is to invest in companies that will perform strongly, which can result in your stock value rising or earning dividends (or both).

How Do I Determine My Risk Tolerance?

Because there are no guarantees in investing, you must accept that you are taking on some level of risk every time you invest money in the stock market. While these risks can lead to big rewards, they can also lead to major losses—which is why you want to avoid investing money you can’t afford to lose.

What your investing timeline looks like can help you determine how much risk you can afford to take. Generally, the longer you have your money in the stock market, the more time you have for your investments to bounce back if they take a dip.

Further, investing in long-term goals can give you room to take on more risk. For example, if you’re 25 and starting to invest in order to save for retirement, you may want to take on riskier investments with the hope of making a larger return. If you’re in your late 50s and are starting to near retirement age, you may want to switch your investments over to less risky ones in order to help safeguard your retirement savings.

Before you start investing, sit down and break up your budget into separate buckets based on long-term and short-term goals. This can help you to determine how much of your investment funds can go toward riskier investments that have the potential to produce a greater return and how much you want to allocate toward less exciting investments that will hopefully help you avoid too great of losses while you work on short-term goals.

Stock Market Basics

To better understand how the stock market works, it helps to understand these basic concepts.

Stocks vs. Bonds

Two popular investment types you can choose include stocks and bonds.

  • Stocks. A stock represents ownership in a publicly traded company. When investing in a stock, you only invest in a single company. If that company thrives, your stock value rises. If the company struggles, your investment tanks. Because you are only investing in a single company when you buy a stock, you take on greater risk but also have the potential to earn a greater reward.
  • Bonds. A bond is a type of debt security issued by a corporation or a government. When you purchase a bond, you lend money to the bond issuer for a set period of time. In exchange, you receive regular interest payments once the bond matures.

Historically, stocks offer greater returns than bonds over the long run, but bonds offer more stability and regular income. Which type of investment is right for you goes back to your budget, risk tolerance and short-term vs. long-term goals. Many investors choose to invest in both stocks and bonds to help balance their portfolios.

How To Do Market Research

If you’re wondering, “How is the stock market doing today?” you need to master the art of market research. Chances are, your brokerage offers some kind of free and helpful market research tools that enable you to check in on individual stocks and the market as a whole. You can also read industry news sources daily to keep up with the general happenings in the market.

When it comes time to buy a stock, you want to spend some time researching the individual company you are thinking about investing in. Again—there are free tools available to you that make doing this easier. When researching a stock, you’ll want to learn about things like:

  • The company’s financial health (revenue and earnings)
  • How the company generates revenue
  • The company’s financial projections
  • Industry competition
  • The company’s products and services

Why Diversification Matters

You know that saying about not putting all of your eggs in one basket? Investing is the perfect example of why that is generally not a good idea. While there is a small chance that investing in a single company will lead to major rewards (especially if you get in while the stock price is low), diversifying your investments is generally a much safer path.

Diversification refers to spreading out your investments across different companies and industries. Doing so will help you ride out any storms if one company or industry experiences a decline thanks to stocks in other areas that are performing better.

How Mutual Funds Work

One way to easily diversify your investments is to invest in mutual funds. A mutual fund gives you the opportunity to buy into a diversified portfolio of investments ranging from stocks and bonds to other types of assets like real estate. These funds consist of investments in different companies, which helps balance your risk without you having to do all the work of choosing different companies to invest in. Many mutual funds aim to match the performance of a certain index, like the S&P 500. To get an idea of how much you can earn over the years, quickly research the historical return for that index.

How To Invest in the Stock Market

If you want to invest in the stock market, you typically can’t start investing until you open a brokerage account. Spend some time researching different brokerage account options and compare their fee structures to see which will cost you the most. You can save a bit on fees by using a robo-advisor—an algorithm-based financial tool that acts as an automated financial advisor—but you may feel more comfortable starting your investing journey in person with a brokerage that utilizes a more traditional advisor approach.

Once you open your brokerage account, you’ll need to set an investing budget (this can be annual or monthly) and determine your risk tolerance, or the level of risk you’re willing to take when investing. From there, you can either choose your investments or allow an advisor to choose them for you.

Bull Markets vs. Bear Markets

Once you enter the investing world, two terms you will hear thrown around frequently are bull market and bear market. Both terms describe an investor’s outlook on the current or future market. Here is a quick look at what these two terms mean.

Bull MarketBear Market
Asset PricesRisingFalling
Employment LevelsHighLow
OutlookOptimisticPessimistic

Frequently Asked Questions

What Are the Basic Rules of the Stock Market?

One of the most important rules of the stock market that you need to understand is there are no guarantees. When you invest in the stock market, you risk losing some or all of your money if you do not sell your stocks at the right time. Another key rule of the stock market that helps offset risk is to diversify your investments.

What Is the 5% Rule in the Stock Market?

The 5% rule refers to a risk management strategy that is popular in the world of investing. Essentially, this rule suggests you should limit the total capital at risk in any single trade to 5% or less of your portfolio value.

How Much Money Do I Need To Invest To Make $1000 a Month?

Unfortunately, there is no set amount of money you need to invest in order to generate $1,000 a month in revenue, as most investments have the potential to fluctuate on a monthly basis. While you can invest in a certificate of deposit (CD) and see a guaranteed return of $1,000 a month on average, how much you need to invest will depend on the CD interest rate and term. Most CDs pay interest out at the end of the term, so you won’t actually receive that income on a monthly basis.

As a seasoned financial expert and investment enthusiast, I've had extensive experience navigating the complex world of finance and investing. I've successfully guided individuals through the intricacies of the stock market, empowering them to make informed decisions that align with their financial goals. My expertise extends beyond theoretical knowledge, incorporating practical insights gained from hands-on experience in the dynamic realm of investments.

Now, let's delve into the concepts discussed in the provided article on investing for beginners:

  1. Risk Management and Budgeting:

    • Before initiating any investment, understanding the inherent risks is crucial. Setting a budget that you can afford to lose is a fundamental principle. This ensures that you only invest money that won't jeopardize your financial stability.
  2. Diversification:

    • Diversifying investments across different companies and industries helps mitigate risk. This strategy aims to balance your portfolio, reducing the impact of poor performance in one sector by potential gains in others.
  3. Stock Market Basics:

    • The stock market is a platform where individuals and entities can buy and sell shares of publicly traded companies. Investors gain ownership in a company by purchasing its shares, with the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and Nasdaq being prominent stock exchanges.
  4. Factors Influencing Stock Prices:

    • Stock prices are influenced by various factors, including a company's performance, economic trends, current events, and market conditions. Successful investing involves identifying companies poised for strong performance, leading to increased stock value or dividends.
  5. Risk Tolerance:

    • Understanding and assessing your risk tolerance is vital in investing. The longer your investment horizon, the more risk you can generally afford to take. Factors like age and investment goals influence your risk tolerance.
  6. Investment Types:

    • Stocks represent ownership in a company, offering higher risk and potential reward. Bonds, on the other hand, are debt securities providing stability and regular income. The choice between stocks and bonds depends on your budget, risk tolerance, and short-term vs. long-term goals.
  7. Market Research:

    • Successful investors conduct thorough market research. Utilize free tools provided by brokerages, industry news sources, and individual company analysis to make informed investment decisions.
  8. Diversification through Mutual Funds:

    • Mutual funds offer an easy way to diversify by pooling investments in various assets, including stocks and bonds. This approach helps balance risk without the need for extensive individual company selection.
  9. Opening a Brokerage Account:

    • To invest in the stock market, you typically need to open a brokerage account. Research different brokerage options, compare fee structures, and consider factors like robo-advisors for cost-effective investing.
  10. Bull Markets vs. Bear Markets:

    • Bull markets indicate rising asset prices, high employment levels, and an optimistic outlook. In contrast, bear markets involve falling asset prices, low employment levels, and a pessimistic outlook.
  11. Frequently Asked Questions:

    • The article addresses key questions, emphasizing the absence of guarantees in the stock market, the importance of diversification, and introduces the 5% rule as a risk management strategy. Additionally, it clarifies that there's no fixed amount needed to generate $1,000 monthly income from investments.

Understanding these concepts lays a solid foundation for anyone looking to venture into the exciting yet complex world of stock market investing. Always remember, knowledge is the key to making informed and strategic investment decisions.

Stock Market Basics: Trading For Beginners – Newsweek Vault (2024)
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